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Each string on the guitar has to be tuned into a specific frequency to sound out the correct tone. The lowest tone is the thick E-string, also called the 6th string, which has a frequency of 82.4 Hz. This means that when played, the string vibrates 82.4 times per second, creating the sound we identify as E. The funny thing is, that if you double the frequency to 164.4 Hz, you have the next E (6th string fret 12, 5th string fret 7, 4th string fret 2). The amount of tones you can play are 12, as you can see it takes 12 frets on the E-string to reach the next E. That means (to be very technically), that for each tone increment, the frequency increases with 2 1/12. There is no need for you to memorize the frequencies, but it's kind a fun to know, especially if you plan on creating a musical application on your computer one day. Here's a table that shows the frequencies for the first 12 frets on all 6 strings:

If you look at the A-string (string 5), you can easily tell that the tone doubles every time. The frequency for A when playing an open (no fret's pressed) A-string is 110 Hz. When playing the next A, which you can do on the G-string (string 3) 2nd fret, the A now vibrates at 220 Hz, and again when playing the thin E-string (string 1) fret 5, the A has increased to 440 Hz.

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